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J 



THE 
R.C.C. 

FACULTY 
GAZETTE 



\ 



AJournof of tfie Faculty of Ro?c6ury Commxiniiy CoSegt 
Votumel Number 1 
Spring^ 1989 




The RCC Faculty Gaeette begins 

publication with this issue in an atmosphere 
of crisis. The political and economic 
climate of the past decade has put 
increasing pressure on Roxbury Community 
College as a public educational institution 
in a state where public funds are more and 
more limited. Even greater has been the 
pressure on the communities and on the 
individual students we serve. African- 
Americans have seen their relative status 
in education, health and economic position 
eroded. Hispanics, Haitians and other 
nationalities have experienced parallel 
pressures. Asians and all minorities have 
experienced rising numbers of racial 
attacks as their communities have grown. 
All working people in the Boston area have 
suffered under an enormous inflation in the 
cost of housing and other necessities of life. 
The high tech balloon in Massachusetts has 
deflated. Jobs are plentiful at very low 
wages. Drugs are plentiful everywhere. 
People are competing against each other for 
scarce resources. These pressures are felt 
in the relations among members of the 
college community every day. Tensions are 
high and resolutions are few. On the streets 
these tensions erupt in violence. In the 
college there are angr>' words and closed 
minds. 

Part of the pressure is caused by our 
own growth as a school both in diversity and 
complexity. We have added the Nursing 
Division, Boston Business School, the Adult 
Literacy Resourse Institute, New 
Beginnings, a departmental chair structure 
and many more new programs. It often 
seems difficult to keep up with new and 
aiiiiitated programs. Committees charged 
with their oversight find themselves far 
behind the times. 

In many ways we have an institutional 
culture at our college that is oral rather 
than written. As a small college, with a 
history of struggle, faculty, students, staff 
and adminisration have historically worked 
closely together and have known each other 
well. As the college has doubled in 
enrollment in the past six years, it has also 
grown more diverse. More cultures, more 
languages, more countries and more 



CONTENTS: RCC FACULTY GAZETTE 
NUMBER ONE SPRING, 1989 

Introduction by Nancy Teel page 1 

TESOL 19B9 by Manju Hertsig page 2 

The Little Student Who Could 

by Raymond E. Turner page 4 



ENlOl Entrance Exam 
by Ken Tangvik 



\ 



page 5 



Readability Project Final Report 

by Jackie Allen Lestage page 7 



neighborhoods are in contact. 
Communication cannot be taken for 
granted. Policies must be spelled out. 
Better records must be kept. Memoranda 
must be written now where oral requests 
used to suffice. Xerox machines have 
multiplied and forests of paper are 
consumed. We are in transition. 

The RCC Faculty Gazette thus 
appears at a time of both crisis and 
opportunity. It is a journal established 
by the faculty of the college to foster and 
deepen communication among ourselves 
and with the rest of the college 
community. By initiating a forum, we 
hope to expand opportunities for 
professional debate and communication 
and for development of dialogue in the 
college as a whole. 

The RCC Faculty Gazette, we hope, 
will provide thoughtful, considered 
information and opinion on issues of 
interest and concern to the faculty. We 
intend it to be a bridge that crosses 
differences. When we debate a position 
expressed in writing, at least we are all 
addressing the same question. When we 
answer in writing, angry emotions are 
blunted. Ideas can better be judged on 
their merits, rather than on who has 
proposed them and in what tone of voice. 

This journal cannot promise to change 



the world we live in, but it can propose to 
bring us closer together in understanding and 
respect for each other's work. We have a 
beautiful new campus, but the bricks and 
landscaping are not the essence of the college. 
Our relationships with each other as 
colleagues, as coworkers, and as teachers with 
students are primary. If these deteriorate, as 
many believe they have, then the college is 
diminished. Knowledge, understanding and 
respect are the watchwords for this journal. 

In this first issue of the RCC Faculty 
Gazette important academic issues 
predominate. The first essay, by Manju 
Hertsig, shares insights gained at the TESOL 
Conference this year. TESOL refers to the 
organisation of Teachers of English To 
Speakers of Other Languages. Raymond E. 
Turner's short story raises familiar issues 
for faculty and students alike. Ken Tangvik, 
Chairman of the English Department, 
discusses the recently initiated Entrance 
Examination for English Composition L His 
essay details the rationale for instituting the 
examination and answers questions that have 
frequently been asked by faculty. Jackie 
Allen-Lestage wrote her readabilty study on 
the textbooks on reserve in the Learning 
Resources Center last year, but it provides a 
baseline analysis that all faculty need to be 
keenly aware of. Note the appendix to her 
study which lists the reading level of every 
text. . We hope you enjoy this issue. Please 
volunteer to contribute your insights for 
future issues. 
Nancy Teel, Editor 



TESOL 19B9 
by Manju Hertzig 

This year's TESOL convention was 
a very enriching experience for me, and I 
would like to share with you some of 
what I gained from the presentations. 
Instead of offering bits and pieces of 
various workshops attended, I thought I 
would detail one of the more relevant and 
insightful ones. 

"Designing Grammar Activities 
Where Language and Learning Intersect" 
by Diane Larson Freeman, School for 
International Training, Brattleboro, 
Vermont. 

Ms.Freeman applied linguistic 
analysis to daily classroom activities in 
order to look at language learning 
through the eyes of the learner. We 
analysed grammar to understand which 
aspect of its use presents the greatest 
challenge to the learner. We then 
designed activities to teach it. 

In this workshop Ms. Freeman 
proposed looking at language three 
dimensionally through structure, 
semantics and pragmatics. The diagrams 
below illustrate the division of language 
into these aspects. 





An example of these three dimensions is 
illustrated below with relative clauses. 

Example: Relative Clauses 

"I just saw the person whom you're waiting for 

having lunch on the riverwalk." 

Structure or Form: Pronoun plus Subject plus 
Verb plus Complement 

Semantics or Grammatical Meaning: Modifier 

Pragmatics or Using Language within a 
Context: Further describes the noun 
preceding it. 

Once you determine which aspect of the 
teaching of this grammar point is most 
challenging to the student, you choose that 
aspect to teach and follow the criteria below in 
designing your material. 

Structure 

1. Ultimate Learning Objective: Automaticity 
of Production 

2. Choice: None — must work with the 
particular pattern 

3. Number of Structures Introduced: One at a 
Time 

4. Major Procedure: Repetition — not 
meaningless, but practicing the same form 
many ways. 

5. Feedback: Looking for Accuracy 

If you decided that FOPJvI was the challenge 
for students when teaching relative pronouns 
then you might choose "which" and practice it 
alone with various examples until you saw 
accuracy in its use before going on to the 
numerous other relative prounouns. 



Semantics 

1. Ultimate Learning Objective: To bond form 
and meaning 

2. Choice: Limited — just use a few different 
language items 

3. Number of Structures Introduced: Between 
3 and 6 . 

4. Major Procedure: Associate form and 
meaning or choose from among forms to be 
learned. 



5. Feedback: Form and meaning match or 
ability to discriminate between one form 
and another. 

Example: Phrasal Verbs 

Telephone Conversation using two-word 
separable verbs: 

Hang up, Pick up , Look up 

If semantics is the challenge in learning 
separable two word verbs, you might 
incorporate related ones into a contextual 
lesson where form and meaning become 
bonded immediately. 



Pragmatics 

1. Ultimate Learning Objective: Sensitivity 
to Context 

2. Choice: Limited to Unlimited 

3. Number of Structures: Two to unlimited 

4. Major Procedure: Match item with 
context 

5. Feedback: Appropriateness 

Example: Present Perfect 

If the challenge to the student in learning 
the present perfect tense is in selecting 
the correct time frame (usage), you could 
ask students to name three to five unusual 
things they have done in their lives. In 
your lesson you would make clear that the 
specific time when they did these things is 
not relevant. 

While Ms. Freeman's thoughts do not 
offer any magical formula for teaching, 
they do help us become more aware of 
which aspects of teaching ESL might prove 
more challenging to our students than 
others. Knowing this allows us to better 
meet these challenges and facilitate 
learning. 



The Little Student Who Could 
by 
Raymond E. Turner 



There was once a little student who could. 
The student who could was named Manrel. 
Vi^hich one is Marvel, I thought, as I made my 
way through a mass of students gathered in 
front of the school. The students were 
protesting the lateness of their financial aid 
checks. My thoughts began to wander as I 
recalled an incident in New York where a 
student actually killed a financial aid officer 
because his check was not ready. The next day 
his check arrived as promised. 

I was futher distracted from my original 
mission by a fellow faculty member who was 
rushing to the parking lot. 

-- How are you, Kirk, he asked. Isn't it a 
lovely day today? 

-- Yes! I replied. But I'll probably spend the 
day looking for the student who could. Some 
students need extra help you know. 

-- Ejrtra help! They are just lazy! He 
responded. If I don't see them during office 
hours, they can forget about me because I am 
out of here. See you tomorrow! 

I walked away from the crowd of students 
into the cafeteria and asked several people if 
they knew who Marvel was. He was my 
advisee but he never reported for advising. I 
was a bit concerned. Finally a student leaned 
over his chair and told me in a whisper that 
the student I sought was in the men's room. 

~ What does he look like? I asked. 

-- He is a little dude with a pair of reject 
sneakers on Man! Why? Is he your brother? 
All the students who shared his table laughed. 

- Yes! I answered. He is yours too. 



After a few minutes, he entered the 
cafeteria. 

- Shorty! someone screamed, this dude is 
looking for you. Did you steal something? 
Marvel just hung his head and walked 
away from the group to sit alone by a 
window. The window overlooked Columbus 
Avenue, a street which is normally heavily 
traveled by automobiles. This provided a 
focus for Marvel. 

I walked over to his table and asked him 
if he was alright. 

--No! Man! Everybody picks on me. One 
of my professors said I was a 
nonperformer. A misfit who would 
accomplish nothing. I try but I get nowhere. 
It is no use! I am going to leave school. 

-Over my dead body! You are coming to 
my office now! I know a bright person when 
I see one and you can make it! 

Reluctantly, the student followed me to 
my office. I sat him down and proceeded to 
tell him what I thought his problems were. 
Your size or your race are not important I 
told him. You must apply yourself. I am 
willing to help you but you must make the 
first step. After several sessions of 
confidence building, I went around to his 
professors and assured them that the 
student wanted to start over and improve. I 
became the arm he could lean on. 

Three months later, Marvel came by my 
office with a smile on his face. 

— What's happening! I asked. 

-- Great! I received 2 A's and 2 B's this 
semester. Thank you professor Kirk. 
Without you I would have dropped out of 
school. Now I have a chance. 

Six years later, Marvel wrote me a 
letter. In the letter he informed me that he 
was attending graduate school at MIT. He 
was studying astrophysics. Amazing I 
thought. The little student who could. I 
leaned back in my chair, gazed out of the 
window at Roxbury and smiled. 



ENGLISH COMPOSITION I 
ENTRANCE EXAM 



By Ken Tangvik 



Introduction 



In the Spring of 1965 the English 
Department decided to discuss the need for a 
college-wide exam that developmental students 
would need to pass before they could go on to 
English Composition I. The exam was given on 
a trial basis in the Spring of '67 and then 
again in the Fall of '87 and the Spring of '86 
Finally, in the Fall of '68, after a great deal of 
discussion and Acuerdo approval, we decided 
to officially implement the exam and enforce 
the results. 

Currently, we are working out some minor 
kinks in the procedures and talking with DEE 
and BBS about implementation of the exam so 
that all students under the RCC umbrella are 
held to the same standards in reading and 
writing. 

Overall, the English Department feels very 
positive about the institution of the Entrance 
Exam. Although the anxiety levels among both 
students and faculty have significantly 
increased, we feel that this anxiety, for the 
most part, has been channelled into positive 
action. English faculty, both part-time and 
full-time, have been collaborating more and 
working harder than ever to prepare students 
for the exam. We also see that students are 
taking the exam very seriously and are 
pushing themselves to reach the level they 
need to attain in order to pass the exam. An 
example of increased student effort is the fact 
that last semester the pre-exam intensive 
workshops that were held in the TLC were 
overfilled with dozens of students. All of us 
noticed that students, for the most part, were 
working with a greater intensity in their 
Developmental Writing courses. 

Although it is still too early to declare the 
exam a huge success, we are finding that in 
general, our students, with proper support, will 
rise to the levels of our expectations, even' 
though it may take some students longer than 
others. 

While those of us in the English and ESL 



departments have discussed this Entrance 
Exam to death, it is clear that many other 
faculty members have questions concerning 
the exam. Therefore, I have organised the 
bulk of this article according to the most 
commonly asked questions about the exam. 

What is the Rationale for the Exam? 

The English Department has long been 
concerned with the problem of underprepared 
students in English Composition I classes. 
Students who are not academically prepared 
for English Composition I come from four 
sources: \ 

1. Students who have taken and passed 
Developmental Writing II but have not 
learned the requisite skills. 

2. Students who have taken and passed the 
advanced ESL courses, but who have not 
learned the requisite skills. 

3. New students who take the placement test 
and are mistakenly placed in English 
Composition I when they should be in 
Developmental Writing or in ESL. 

4. Returning students who register for 
English Composition I even though they do 
not have the prerequisites {i.e. they have not 
completed or have not passed Developmental 
Writing 11 or ESL Advanced Writing). 

We do not know the exact percentage of 
underprepared students coming from each of 
these sources, but we know that each is 
significant. We also know that these 
particular students cause serious problems 
in English Composition I classes. Several of 
these students in a section can hold back the 
progress of a whole class. On an individual 
level these students may work very hard, but 
see little progress in their writing because 
the course is aimed above their skill level. 
The needs that they have are not met bv the 
course. At the end of a semester they often 
feel that they should pass because they have 
worked so hard and are very discouraged and 
disappointed when they find that they have 
not met the standards. To attempt to 
minimize all of the negative consequences of 
underprepared students in English 
Composition I, the English Department 
decided that it was necessary to implement 
the exam. 



Who Takes the Exam and What Does the Exam 
Evaluate? 

All Developmental Writing II students and 
all Level 6 ESL Writing Students are eligible to 
take the exam. Also, any students from 
Developmental Writing I or from ESL levels 4 
or 5 are eligible if they are recommended by 
their instructor. Finally, any student who 
failed the exam the previous semester is 
eligible to take the exam. 

The exam evaluates each student's writing 
and reading comprehension skills. The student 
is asked to write two paragraphs; one using 
description or narration, and the other using 
an expository strategy. The student is expected 
to write a concise, well-developed, clear 
paragraph with a minimal amount of spelling, 
grammar, diction, etc., errors. Also, the 
student is asked to read a selection that is at a 
tenth to eleventh grade reading level and 
answer a series of questions. 



Why Do English Faculty Want to Keep the 
Entrance Exam Separate from the Grade That 
the Student Receives in His/Her Writing Class? 

After conducting a thorough discussion of 
matters pertaining to the implementation of the 
Eglish Composition I Entrance Exam, English 
faculty decided to keep the exam separate from 
the grade students may earn in developmental 
English courses or in advanced ESL courses. 

The practical implication of this policy is 
that a student may, for instance, fail 
Developmental Writing II but pass the 
Entrance Exam or pass the course but fail the 
exam. 

The student may pass the course for the 
following reasons: 

1. The teacher may allow the student to 
rewrite course assignments. 

2. The teacher grades the students on the basis 
of a number of different assignments completed 
throughout the semester. 

3. After working with the same teacher for a 
while, in the course of the semester the student 
may perform adequately because the 
coursework is viewed as routine. 



nonthreatening activity. 

The student may fail the Entrance Exam for 
the following reasons; 

1. The exam is a one-time event that cannot 
be rewritten. 

2. The exam is graded by a committee of 
English faculty, not a single faculty 
member. 

3. The exam may turn out to be a stressful, 
threatening event which may negatively 
affect student performance. \ 

In addition, the department has agreed 
that it cannot expect that the judgement of 
the grading committee will necessarily 
coincide with that of individual faculty 
members. 

Therefore, the consensus in the 
department is that students may receive 
passing grades for the courses that prepare 
them for English Composition I but will be 
prevented from taking that course until 
they pass the Entrance Exam. 



"What Options Are Open to Students Who 
Fail the Exam? 

While we feel that all R.C.C. students 
must attain a certain level of competency, 
we want to make sure that those students 
who fail the exam are given sufficient 
support and clear options; we want these 
students to see the exam as a challenge that 
they must rise to, rather than a dead end to 
their college careers. Therefore the 
following options are available to students 
who fail the exam: 



1. First of all, two weeks after the exam, a 
make-up is given for all students who 
failed. During this two-week period 
students go over the exam with professors to 
see what went wrong, and intensive 
workshops are held at the TLC. 



2. If a student fails both the first exam and 
the make-up, but the faculty member feels 
strongly that the student should go on to 



English Composition I, there is an appeals 
process. A hearing is held and a faculty 
committee from the English Department will 
make a decision after looking at examples of 
the student's writing and hearing the 
arguments of the faculty advocate. The 
hearing committee consists of those members 
of the English Department who are not 
teaching Developmental Writing II during the 
current semester. 

3. The student can retake Developmental 
Writing II as an audit or as a fifth course, 
since he/she could not receive financial aid for 
the same course over again. 

A. If the reading skills of the student need to 
be strengthened, he/she could take either 
Developmental Reading I or II. 

5. If study skills need to be developed, the 
student could take Issues in Applied Learning. 

6. If the ESL sequence was not finished, the 
student could take the remaining ESL classes 
(there are now six levels). 

7. If sentence grammar was the problem, the 
student could take Developmental Writing I. 

8. Another option would be for the student to 
sign up for a series of non-credit workshops 
offered by Lisa Gonsalves in the TLC in the 
following semester. 

9. If English is not the first language, and the 
student has not gone through the ESL Program, 
he/she could consider being tested by the ESL 
Department during registration in the 
following semester. 

It is important to note that each student 
who fails the exam is encouraged to meet with 
the instructor and advisor in making the 
decision about which of these options is most 
appropriate. 



What is the Future of the Entrance Exam? 

Currently, the English Department is doing a 
study on the results of the exam of last 
semester. Most importantly, we want to know 
what happened to the students who failed the 
exam. This study will be completed soon and 
may appear in the next issue of this 
newsletter. 



Overall, we will continue to use the exam 
every semester because we firmly believe 
that it is in the educational interests of our 
students to be challenged before they enter 
college-level writing courses. 



READABILITY PROJECT FINAL REPORT 

October 16. 1987 

by Jackie Allen-Lestage 



The purpose of the Readability Project is 
twofold: 1) To assign estimated grade levels 
to the textbooks on reserve in the Learning 
Resource Center and 2) based on the 
estimates, make available to faculty 
instructional media materials to supplement 
and enrich the curriculum. The Readability 
formulas used to determine the estimates 
include the Spache, Dale-Chall, Fry, Flesch, 
Raygor, Fog, and Smog formulas. The criteria 
used in each formula are described and 
explained in the Brittanica Readability 
Formulas Teacher's manuaL The criteria 
used for each sample generally involve 
numbers of words in a sentence, number of 
words with a particular number of syllables, 
and numbers of sentences in each sample. 

To date, a letter requesting readability 
information has been sent to all reserved 
book publishers. The responses from the 
publishers have been minimal. The responses 
received indicate that very little, if any, 
information on readability issues is a 
concern or interest of publishing companies. 
McGraw-Hill did forward some grade 
estimates on their texts. The books on 
reserve have been run through the seven 
readability formulas series and estimates 
have been assigned to each textbook. 

In Fall '87, the L.R.C. will present the 
Readability Project and its results to the 
R.C.C. community via a week long forum 
series. Preparations for the series are 
currently being discussed and planned. 

Although Readability can provide 
additional evaluative textbook information, 
educators often refer to Readability as an 
"inexact science". This opinion results from 
the facts that: 1) the results are subjective 
on the part of the evaluator, 2) different 



formulas often produce different estimates for 
the same textbook. In this particular study, 
grade level estimates were assigned based on 
the consistency of grade levels determined by 
each of the 7 formulas. And, 3) selections from 
texts for evaluation are selected at random. 
In this study, three selections from each text 
were randomly chosen and a grade level was 
assigned to the text based on the results of 
those three selections. Intermittently, three 
different samples from the same texts were 
evaluated and the results were a grade level 
or two above or below the original results of 
the first three selections. In these cases, the 
consistenc>' of grade levels determined by each 
of the 7 formulas provided the basis for the 
grade level estimate. 

A suggestion for future Readability studies 
is that more than one Readability Formula 
software program be used for each text in 
order that the evaluator have a broader base 
for comparison, evaluation, and grade level 
estimation. The Encyclopedia Brittanica 
Readability Formulas program was used for 
this study. If the study were to be expanded, 
the evaluator might consider using additional 
software programs such as the Readability 
Index by Educational Activities and 
Readability Calculations by the Mass Power 
and Light Company in addition to the 
Brittanica program. 

Another suggestion for future Readability 
studies is that the faculty using the texts 
being evaluated be consulted and involved in 
the study and in assigning the grade level 
estimates for their course books. Being aware 
of and involved in the study process could 
provide faculty with further insight into 
textbook selections. 

Because Readability does provide another 
option for textbook evaluation, the L.R.C. 
might consider expanding the study to include 
all texts which are housed in the L.R.C. The 
results could be noted in the card catalogs 
files and on the classification stickers on 
each book. Faculty and students could benefit 
from this additional information. At the very 
least, the study should be continued on all new 
books added to the reserved books' shelves. 

233 books on reserve in the L.R.C. were 
evaluated in the Readability Formulas Study. 
The results are as follows: 



% 


at 


Grade Level 


3% 




3 and 4 


3% 




6 and 7 


Wo 




8 


7% 




high school freshman 



4.8% 


high school sophomore 


14.5% 


high school junior 


17.5% 


high school senior 


21% 


college freshman 


11% 


college sophomore 


6.9% 


college junior 


5.6% 


college senior 


2% 


graduate school 



The Readability Project notebook, housed 
in the Learning Resource Center, contains the 
collection of individual textbook scores as 
determined by each of the 7 formulas and the 
grade level estimates for each text. The page 
numbers for each selection of each text are 
also included. The Brittanica Formulas 
Teacher's manual which contains a 
description of the study's processes is also 
included in the notebook. During the Fall 
forum series, this information will be shared 
with participants. 

The Readability Formulas Study was an 
interesting and challenging project. L.R.C. 
Director, Monica Bond, and her staff provided 
the support, direction, assistance, and 
cooperation which was necessary to bring this 
project to fruition. The opportunity to work on 
this project in the L.R.C. is deeply 
appreciated. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



TEXTS 



Anderson, Paul. New Essays in Technical 
and Scientific Communucation: Research 
Theory, Practice . Farmingdale: Baywood 
Publishing Co., 198?. 

Gunning, Robert. The Technique of Clear 
Writing. New York: McGraw-Hill. 1968. 

Spache, George. Good Books for Poor Readers. 
Champagne, 111.: Gerard Publishing Co. 1966. 

JOURNALS 

Bormuth, John. "Readability: A New 
Approach." Reading Research Quarterly , vol. 
1 (Fall. 1966), pp. 79-132. 

Britton, Gwyneth and Margaret Lumpkin. A 
Consumer's Guide on Readability. Corvallis 
Ore.: Britton and Associates, 1977. 



Dale Edgar and Jeanne Chall. "A Formula for 
Predicting Readability." Educational Research 
Bulletin , vol. 2 {Jan., 194S), pp. 11-20. 

Danielson, Kathy Evert. "Readability 
Formulas: A Necessary Evil." Readine 



Korizons . vol. 27, «3, {April, 1987), pp. 178-188. 

Flesch, Rudolf. "A New Readability Yardstick." 
Journal of Applied Psychology , vol. 32, {June, 
1948), pp. 221-233. 

Fry, Edward. "The Varied Uses of Readability 
Today." Journal of Reading , vol. 30, #4, {Jan., 
19Q1), pp. 336- 343. 



SOFTWARE 

Encyclopaedia Brittanica. Readability 
Formulas: Computer Based Learning. 
Chicago: Encyclopaedia Brittanica 
Educational Corporation, 1984. 

Educational Activities. The Readabilit>' Index. 

Mass Power and Light Company. Readability 
Calculations. 



Fry, Edy^ard. "A Readability Formula That 
Saves Time." Journal of Reading , vol. 11, #7, 
{April, 1968), pp. 513-516, 575-578. 

Fry, Edward. "Fry's Readability Graph: 
Clarifications, Validity, and Extension to 
Level 17." Journal of Reading , vol. 21, #3, pp. 
242-25? 

Fry, Edward. "The Readability Principle." 
Language Arts , voL 52, «6, {Sept., 1975b), pp. 
847-851. 

Klare, George. "Assessing Readability." 
Reading Research Quarterly , vol. 10, #1, 
{1974-1975), pp. 62-102. 

Kretschmer, Joseph. "Updating the Fry 
Readability Formulas." The Reading Teacher . 
vol. 29, #6, {Mar.. 1976), pp. 555-558. 

Maginnis, George. "The Readability Graph and 
Informal Reading Inventories." The Reading 
Teacher , vol. 22, #6, {March, 1969), pp. 516-518, 
559. 

McLaughlin, G. "Smog Grading- A New 
Readability Formula." Journal of Reading . voL 
12, pp. 639-646. 

Raygor, Alton. "The Raygor Readability 
Estimate: A Quick and Easy Way to Determine 
Difficulty. " Reading: Theory. Research and 
Practice , {ed. by P. David Pearson) Clemson, 
SC: National Reading Conference, 1977, pp. 
259-263. 



About the contributors to this isiie: 

Jackje AJJen-Lssta£^e js Assistant Professor of 

BngJish. 
Manju Hertsig is Instructor ofEngJish as a 

Second Language. 
Ken Tangvjk js Assistant Professor of 

English. 
Nanc}' Teel is Associate Professor of English. 
Paywoncf E Turner is Assistant Professor 

of Mathematics and Chemistry. 



Thanks to the following people who provided 
editorial, technical and moral support for 
this issue: Angel Amy-Moreno, Pichard 
Eells, Eric Entemann, Orland Fernandes, 
Lisa Gonsalves, Glasceta Honeyghan, 
Michael Impastato and Raymond E turner. 



Swanson, C. "Readability and Readership: A 
Controlled Experiment." Journalism 
Quarterly , vol. 25, {1948), pp. 339-345. 



APPeCIX TO RCC FACULTY OCETTE 

BOOK TITLE 

Access to Literature 

Accounting: The Basis for 
Business Decisions 

An Activities Handbook for 
Teachers of Young Children 

Adult Development and Aging 

Adult Development and Learning 



FRCM READABILITY PROJECT FINAL REPORT 



SAMPLE PAGE #s 
5, 317, 802 

19, 412, 765 

A, 99, 231 
4, 63, 285 
37, 140, 427 



Advanced Listening Comprehension 4, 67, 132 



Algebra (Introductory) 

All About Words 

America's Black Musical 
Heritage 

American Negro Poetry- 
American Tradition in Lit. 
Among the Valiant 
Anne Frank 
Applied Electronics 

Arboriculture: Care of Trees, 
Shrubs, and Vines in the 
Landscape 

Arithmetic 

Basic: An Intro to Computer 
Programming 

Basic Business Math 

Basic Electronics 

Basic Math forCalculus 

Basic Mathematical Skill 

Basics of American Politics 

Bedford Reader j= 

Before the Mayflower 

Biology , 



2, 398, 520 
42, 217, 329 

5, 120, 248 

14, 90, 176 

3, 841, 1702 

20, 67, 248 
27, 101, 118 
27, 117, 313 

21, 283, 619 
42, 357,- 453 

1, 111, 327 
1, 107, 225 
10, 295, 596 
169, 221, 290 

• 

15, 282, 628 
5, 107, 243 
1, 265, 529 
25, 293, 632 
13, 397, 962 






GRADE LEVEL ESTIMATE 
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Grade 7 
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College Freshman 

Grade 4 

College Freshman 

College Freshman 
College Freshman 
College Sophomore 
College Sophomore 
H.S. Senior 
H.S. Junior 
H.S. Junior 
College Sophomore 



:t: 



BOOK TITLE 

Biology, An Intro 

The Black Composer Speaks 

Black Theater 

Black Voices 

Black l^omen in the Lab Force 

Black Women Writers 

Black Writers of America 

Blues People 

Brief Calculus w/ Applicat. 

Business Mathematics 

Capitol Courthouse and 
City Hall 

Carribean Transformations 
Check In, Check Out 
Chemistry 

Chemistry: Structure and 
Dynamics 

Children of the Holocaust 

College Chemistry 

College Writing Skills 

Composing One 

Composition Steps 

Computer Fundamentals: 
Information Age 

Computer Programming in Cobol 

Computers and Data Processing 
Today 

Computers Today 

Contemporary Macroeconomics 

Contemporary Microeconomics 



SAMPLE PAGE #s 
4, 255, 533 
1, 108, 369 
45, 179, 382 
25, ,113, 537 

1, 47, 77 

3, 206, 478 
5, 380, 884 

4, 55, 178 

2, 186, 578 
15, 163, 341 

5, 189, 429 
58, 143, 326 
15, 186, 353 
10, 371, 739 

7, 336, 727 

9, 111, 335 

1, 71, 206 

5, 112, 374 

7, 49, 158 
5, 75, 132 

1.19, 5.31, A. 6 
1, 97, 187 

37, 185, B116 

8, 297, 592 
26, 183, 511 
3, 135, 301 



GRADE LEVEL ESTIMATE 

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Graduate School 
College Sophomore 
College Sophomore 

College Junior 
H.S. Junior 
College Junior 
College Junior 
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Grade 4 

College Freshman 
H.S. Sophomore 

College Junior 
College Sophomore 
College Freshman 
College Freshman 



BOOK TITLE 



SAMPLE PAGE *s 



GRADE LEVEL ESTIMATE 



Conversation Book 

Cost Accounting 

Cultural Anthropology 

The Cultural Experience 

Dark Symphony 

Dare to Discipline 

Data File Programming 
in Basic 

Developing Reading Skills 

Diary of Anne Frank 

Dimensions 

Early Negro Writing 

Economics 

Effective Human Relations 

Electronics Circuits and App. 

Elementary Composition I & II 

Elementary Statistics 

Elements of Style 

English Sentences 

The Essay Connection 

Essentials of Accounting 

Essentials of Managerial 
Finance 

Essentials of Marketing 

Exceptional Children: Intro 
to Special Education 

Expanding Reading Skills, Adv. 

Explorations in Basic Biology 

Exploratory Electronics 

Exploring Child Behavior 



13, 58, 135 
2, 361, 641 
5, 93, 208 
8, 81, 197 

14, 191, 515 
5, 89, 166 

2, 110, 309 

24, 87, 156 
27, 103, 125 

11, 171, 426 

13, 216, 625 
1, 175, 356 

5, 191, 295 

25, 205, 395 
23, 50, 102 

12, 201, 523 

6, 32, 70 
1, 107, 248 

3, 139, 346 

14, 58, 96 

73, 307, 636 
39, 165, 392 

5, 104, 440 
27, 70, 97 
44, 193, 258 
2.0, 9.1, 19 

15, 187, 585 



Grade 8 

College Sophomore 
College Sophomore 
H.S. Junior 
College Freshman 
College Freshman 

H.S. Junior 
Grade 3-4 
Grade 7 
H.S. Senior 
College Freshman 
College Sophomore 
College Sophomore 
.College Senior 
Grade 7 

College Freshman 
College Freshman 
Grade 7 
H.S. Senior 
H.S. Junior 
College Freshman 

College Freshman 

College Junior 
College Freshman 
College Freshman 
H.S. Junior 
College Freshman 



:m^ 



BOOK TITLE ' - 

Economics Study Guide 

The First Aid Book 

First Time: The Historic 

Vision of an Afro-American 
People 

Five Slave Narratives 

Fortran with Problem Solving 

From Gunboats to Diplomacy 

From Idea to Essay 

From Slavery to Freedom 

From the Dark Tower 

Fundamentals of English Gram. 

The Fundamental English 
Handbook and Rhetoric 

Fundamentals of Psychology 

Fundamentals of g/iructured Cobol 

Further up the Organization 

Games Nations Play 

General Zoology 

Getting It Together 

Government by the People 

The Grammar Book - ESL 

Guide to the Whole Writing 
Process 

Handbook of Electronic Systems 
Design 

Handbook for Real Estate 

Health and Social Environment 

The Helping Interview 

Hide or Seek 

A History of Latin American 
Art and Architecture 



SAMPLE PAGE #s 
1, 239, 482 

1, 115, 197 

7, 39, 171 

2, 51, 63 
5, 109, 333 

8, 99, 207 

3, 91, 390 
3, 229, 422 
25, 127, 216 
55, 215, 489 

1, 29 sec. 2, 149 

7, 235, 437 
1, 147, 491 

8, 89, 237 
17, 237, 473 
121, 342, 647 
3, 61, 87 

31, 222, "544 
10, 135, 491 

10, 82, 163 

1.65, 5.7, 7.3 
1, 83, 165 
3, 170, 239 
7, .71, 159 
17, 105, 159 

13, 116, 275 ■ "' 






GRADE LEVEL ESTIMATE 

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Grade 6-7 
College Freshman 
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College Sophomore 

College Senior 
Grade 8 

College Sophomore 
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H.S. Senior 
t College Junior 

H.S. Senior 
College Sophomore 

H.S. Junior 
H.S. Freshman 

College Freshman 



BOOK TITLE 



SAMPLE PAGE *S 



GRADE LEVEL ESTIMATE 



How Capitalism Underdeveloped 
Baick America 

How Europe Underdeveloped Africa 

Human Anatomy and Physiology 

Hunt Economics 

Ideas and Patterns for Writing 

Idioms in Action 

Impact: Adult Literacy and 
Language Skills 

Impact: Adult Reading and 
Language Skills 

Impact: Adult Reading Skills 

Improving Aural Comprehension 

Index to Modern English 

The Informed Writer 

In Print: Critical Reading 
and Writing 

Inquiry into Life 

Intermediate Accounting 

The International Crisis in 
the Caribbean 

Interviewing Principles and 
Practices 

Interviews with BlackWriters 

Intro to Computer Programming 



24, 170, 227 
3, 95, 173 
9, 323, 406 

7, 151, 493 
15, 197, 412 
11, 61, 75 

8, 58, 144 

14, 35, 113 
7, 41, 116 
96, 144, 184 
19, 188, 281 
30, 185, 419 

3, 152, 275 
19, 349, 713 
23, 221, 579 

1, 59, 153 

7, 103, 163 
3, 79, 259 



College Sophomore 
College Sophomore 
H.S. Senior 
College Senior 
College Sophomore 
Grade 3-4 

Gradel3 

Grade 4 
Grade 6-7 
H.S. Junior 
H.S. Junior 
College Freshman 

'College Freshman 
H.S. Junior 
College Junior 

Graduate School 

College Senior 
H.S. Senior 



RPG 


2.19, 7.1, 12.25 


H.S. Sophomore 


Intro to Electronics 


14, 216, 369 


H.S- Senior 


Intro to Literature 


29, 533, 822 


H.S. Junior 


Intro to Special Education 


11, 147, 409 

• 


College Freshman 


Intro to Structured Cobol 


1.7, 4.5, 7.1 


H.S. Senior 


Journalism and the Media 


1, 81, 167 


College Freshman 


IV 


- 



BOOK TITLES 

Julius Caesar 

Kindergarten and Early 
Schooling 

Language Skills for 
Journalists 

Lav for Business 

Learning Experiences in 
Electronics 

Learning Experiences in 
Transistors 

Life and Times of Frederick 
Douglass 

Literature: An Intro to 

Fiction, Poetry and Drama 



SAMPLE PAGE #s 
VII, 89, 211 

3, • 123, 295 

1, 87, 185 
12, 165, 722 

12, 92, 208 

12, 106, 278 

15, 333, 466 



10, 429, 1352 
Literature: Structure , Sound , &Sense 3, 441, 1414 



The Lively Art of Writing 

Lodging and Food Service 
Industry 

Macroeconomics by Gardner 

Microeconomics by McKenzie 

Macroeconomics by Reynolds 

Main Currents in Caribbean 
Thought 

The Mainstream of Algebra 
and Trigonometry 

Management 

Managing for Results 

The Man of Words in the 
West Indies 

Manual of Landscape Plants 

Marketing: Basic Concepts 

Intro to Marketing 

Mastering American English 



19, 103, 165 

4, 63, 267 

5, 209, 385 
7, 123, 466 
7, 150, 287 

1, 103, 229 

2, 65, 391 
11, 243, 569 

3, 111, 225 

1, 111, 168 
1, 284, 495 
27, 312, 620 
5, 211, 521 
1, 51, 163 



GRADE LEVEL ESTIMATE 
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\ 

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H.S. Freshman 

Graduate School 

College Sophomore 
College Senior 
College Freshman 

College Freshman 
H.S. Junior 
College Sophomore 
College Junior 
H.S. Sophomore 



BOOK TITLES 

Medical/Surgical Nursing 

Men of Math 

Microbiology 

Microeconomics by Sichel 

Microeconomics by Reynolds 

Minicomputer Systems 

Minorities in American Soc. 

The Music of Black Americans 

Music: A Way of Life for the 
Young Child 

Narrative of the Life of 
Frederick Douglass, An 
American Slave 

Native Sons 

Negro Caravan 

The Negro in Art 

News Reporting and Writing 

No Hot Water 

Nursery School & Day Care Center 
Management Guide 

The Nursery School and Kinderg. 
Human Relationships and 
Learning 21, 147, 247 

Nutrition: Concepts and Controv. 3, 187, 386 



SAMPLE PAGE #s 
3, 475, 1080 
3, 211, 406 

24, 217, 543 
15, 125, 424 

25, 101, 351 
11, 283, 397 
89, 249, 415 
25, 184, 429 

1, 51, 211 

33, 77, 159 
13, 87, 143 
3, 431, 960 

3, 8, 138 

4, 155, 593 
3, 125, 153 

5, 89, 273 



Observing and Recording the 
Behavior of Young Children 

Office Practices 

On Paper 

Passages 

Pathfinders 

Patterns for College Writing 

Patterns Plus: A Short Prose 
Reader with Argumentation 



3, 87, 178 
57, 273, 411 
5, 160, 295 
\,20, 285, 351 
69, 277, 528 
1, 120, 293 

5, 181, 343 



GRADE LEVEL ESTIMATE 
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BOOK TITLE 



SAMPLE PAGE #s 



GRADE LEVEL ESTIMATE 



A People and a Nation 

People, Power, & Politics 

Physical Fitness: A Way of Life 

Physics 

The Political Economy of Race 
and Class in South Africa 

Practical Electronics for 
Career Preparation 

Practice Exercise in News 
Writing 

Property Management 

The Psychology of Human 
Behavior 

Psychology of Adjustment 
and Human Relationships 

Purchasing: Selection and 
Procurement for the 
Hospitality Industry 

Quantity Cooking 

Race, Economics and Corporate 
America 

Reader's Choice:ESL Reading 
Skills Textbook 

Reading for Adults 

Reading Skills Handbook 

Readings in Black American 
Music 

Reinventing the Corporation 

The Research Paper 

Reporting for the Print Media 

Reveille for Radicals 

The Riverside Reader 

The Sale and Purchase of 
Restaurants 



64, 296, 393 
15, 189, 296 

7, 118, 202 

8, 283, 581 

7, 119, 323 

73.1, 99.1, 129.1 

5, 85, 181 

19, 129, 262 

63, 241, 383 
11, 181, 415 

65, 146, 377 
15, 135, 363 

18, 96, 209 

20, 148, 178 
10, 46, 93 
17, 185, 401 

7, 104, 253 
27, 119, 214 

8, 76, 138 
3, 101, 201 
24, 89, 205 
3, 211, 445 

3, 61, 151 



H.S. Senior 
College sophomore 
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H.S. Junior 

Graduate School 

College Junior 

H.S. Sophomore 
College Senior 

H.S. Senior 

H.S. Junior 

H.S. Senior 

H.S. Sophomore 

Graduate School 
H.S. Junior 

Grade 6-7 
H.S. Senior 

College Freshman 
College Freshman 
H.S. Senior 
H.S. Senior 
H.S. Senior 
College Freshman 

H.S. Senior 



BOOK TITLE 



SAMPLE PAGE #s 



GRADE LEVEL ESTIMATE 



Revolutionary Petunias 

Science & Technology:A Reader 

Sentence Skills 

Sex and Racism in America 

A Short Course in Writing 

A Short Guide to Writing 
About Literature 

Short Model Essays 

Side by Side 

The Slave Community 

Slave Populations of the 
British Caribbean 

Slavery Illustrated in Its 
Effects upon Women and 
Domestic Society 

Speak With Confidence 

Social Perspectives in the 
History of Economic Theory 

Sociology 

Statistics: An Intuitive 
Approach 

The Stranger 

Stride Toward Freedom 

-The Strong Willed Child 

Students Book of College Eng. 

The Successful On-Site Manager 

Supervision in the Hospitality 
Industry by Daschler & Ninem. 

Systems Analysis. anfl Design Lty 

Taking Care of Your Child 

Theme and Variance 

Things Fall Apart 



1, 20, 30 

1, 57, 131 
11, 94, 327 
39, 68, 133 

2, 114, 270 

23, 92, 237 
13, 234, 359 
23, 77, 180 
4, 91, 321 

33, 317, 395 

9, 39, 95 

6, 104, 236 

1, 121, 281 
15, 172, 379 

7, 122, 183 

4, 64, 123 
18, 76, 209 
29, 73, 211 

5, 100, 247 
9, 126, 225 

27, 112, 213 
1, 145, 493 
12, 143, 246 
54, 255, 299 
9, 83, 167 

-ty: . 



College Sophomore 

H.S. Senior 
Grade 8 

College Freshman 
College freshman 

H.S. Senior 
H.S. Junior 
Grade 3-4 
College Junior 

College Sophomore 

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Graduate School 

College Freshman 
College Freshman 

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H.S. Sophomore 

H.S. Junior 
H.S. Freshman 

H.S. Senior 
College Freshman 

H.S. Senior 
H.S. Freshman 

H.S. Senior 
Grade 7 



BOOK TITLE 



SAMPLE PAGE ts 



GRADE LEVEL ESTIMATE 



Think, Read, React, Plant 
Write, Rewrite 

To Kill a Messenger 

Toward a New Psychology 
of Women 

Understanding Marketing 

University Physics 

Witnessing Slavery 

Women: A Feminist Perspective 

Word Processing 

Word Processing: Concepts & 
Careers 

Word Processing Concepts 



19, 199, 264 
1, 97, 280 

I, 53, 98 
3, 106, 259 

18, 131, 789 

II, 100, 138 
23, 179, 456 

19, 45, 84 

18, 164, 228 
25, 68, 103 



H.S. Junior 
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College Senior 
College Freshman 

H.S. Senior 
College Freshman